Ms. Wejman

January 13th, 2017

Peek at the Week ~ Week of January 16th

Room 207

Peek at the Week

Week of January 17th-20th

 

Writing: Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic.

The students will be using reliable websites to research their African-American history topic.  Ask your fourth grader to identify the person or event that he or she is researching.  As the fourth graders are researching, they will use the APA format to list references in a bibliography.  They will be paraphrasing the researched information.  The students will be instructed that they should not be plagiarizing but instead writing the information in their own words.  

 

Math: Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic.

The students will practice partial product multiplication with the game multiplication wrestling.  They will also find the area and perimeter of rectilinear figures.  Finally, the students will use multiplication to solve multi-step math problems.  Before the students solve the problem, they will make an estimate to help them.  When working with your fourth grader at home, make sure they make sense of the problem before them persevere and solve it.  

 

Reading: Determine the main idea of a text and explain how it is supported by key details; summarize the text.  

As the students continue to read their biographies, they will be able to differentiate between main idea and supporting detail.  The teacher will meet with each student to read with them and identify the main idea of an excerpt, chapter or whole book.  They will record the main idea and supporting details in a graphic organizer.  When reading with your fourth grader at home, ask him or her to identify the main idea of what was read supported with a detail.  

Homework Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday
Reading Read for 30 minutes.   Read for 30 minutes. Read for 30 minutes. Letters from North America, South America, and Europe due.   Read for 30 minutes.  Letters from Africa, Asia, and Australia due.   Read for 30 minutes.
Math Homelink 4.10 Homelink 4.11 Homelink 4.12 Math Homework Due
December 23rd, 2016

Peek at the Week ~ Week of January 9th

Room 207

Peek at the Week

Week of January 9th-13th

Math:Use place value understanding for multi-digit whole numbers.

The students will practice strategies to solve problems.  Before students solve problems, they need to make sure to make sense of the problem.  They will also use partial products multiplication to multiply a two digit number by a two digit number. Because the students are taking the middle of the year NWEA on Wednesday and Thursday, there be no math homework on Wednesday and Thursday.  

 

Reading: Determine the main idea of a text and explain how it is supported by key details; summarize the text.

Every fourth grader should have a biography that they will be reading in class for the next few weeks.  They should have picked a biography of a person that they would like to dress as for the Fourth Grade Wax Museum which will be held on Thursday, February 2nd.  This week, the students will be reading the biography in class.  As they are reading the biography, they will be identifying ten vocabulary words that are important to the person’s life that they are reading about.  Throughout the week, they will be using context clues to define each word, identifying why the word is important to the person, and drawing an image that describes the word.  The fourth grader will also be identifying supporting details that are important to the person’s life.   

 

Writing: Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic.  

The writing genre of the month of January will be research.   To prepare the students for African-American history month, every student will be researching a person or event in African-American history that they would like to learn more about.  The students will begin the research unit with generating people and events that they are already familiar with.  From their schema, they will then ask inquiry questions about a person or event  that they would like to know more about.  Before the researching actually begins, they will be instructed on using reliable websites, how to write a bibliography, and the importance of paraphrasing instead of plagiarizing.   Ask your fourth grader what person or event that he or she plans to research.   

 

NWEA

The fourth graders will take the middle of the year assessments on Wednesday and Thursday.  The purpose of the middle of the year assessment is to monitor growth.  If you are interested in knowing your student’s scores, I would be happy to send the reports to you.  

 

Spelling Bee

The Ray School Spelling Bee will be held on Friday, January 13th at 1:45.  Room 207 will choose its two representatives on Wednesday, January 11th during a class Spelling Bee.  All students were given study materials before break.  Every student from Room 207 is given the opportunity to participate in the class spelling bee.  

 

Ms. Pelachyk

For the next four months, Ms. Pelachyk will be our Michigan State intern.  She will assume the same responsibilities and roles that Ms. Smith had during the first four months of school.  Students that wrote homework letters to Miss Smith should now write letters to Ms. Pelachyk.  

 

Homework Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday
Reading Read for 30 minutes. Read for 30 minutes.

Letters from North America and South America due.  

Read for 30 minutes.

Letters from Europe and Africa due.  

Read for 30 minutes.

Letters from Asia and Australia due.  

Read for 30 minutes.  
Math Homelink 4.8 Homelink 4.9 Math Homework Due Math Homework Due

 

December 16th, 2016

Peek at the Week ~ Week of December 19th

Room 207

Peek at the Week

Week of December 19th-23rd

 

Math: Generalize place value understanding for multi-digit numbers.

The week will begin with an open response.  The students will use multiplication and division to see if they are able to fit one million dollars in a box.  They will use different strategies to prove their answer.  On Wednesday, they will be explicitly taught the partial product multiplication strategy.  Through this strategy, they will multiply numbers by place value.  The students will finish the week with converting kilograms to grams.  

 

Writing: Write informative/ explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.

We will begin the week by observing the front and back covers of informational books.  Students are welcome to bring in pictures to use on their front or back cover or throughout the book.  As the writers are finishing their books, they will be focusing on using text features such as a table of contents, bold words, subtitles, and a glossary.  Informational books should be done and be ready for grading on Wednesday.  They should be published on Friday for our publishing party.   All parents are invited to attend our publishing party at 2:45 on Friday.  Students are invited to bring in treats for our celebration.  

 

Reading: Determine the main idea of a text and explain how it is supported by key details; summarize the text.

As the students are reading their biographies, they will identify the main idea of the text.  During break, every student is to pick their own biography and bring it to school.  They will choose the person that they want to read about.  For the remainder of the quarter, they will practice using reading strategies with this book.  Every fourth grader is to bring in the biography of their choice on Monday, January 9th.  If they do not bring in their own biography, the teacher will assign a biography to them.  When picking a biography, make sure that it is the appropriate reading level and is someone that the fourth grader is interested in dressing as and learning about.  As a culminating project, they will dress up as this person at a Fourth Grade Wax Museum that will take place on Thursday, February 2nd.  

 

Homework Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday
Math Homelink 4.5 Homelink 4.6 Homelink 4.7 Math Homework Due
Reading Read for 30 minutes. Read for 30 minutes.
Letters from North America and South America due  
Read for 30 minutes.

Letter from Europe and Africa due.   

Read for 30 minutes.

Letters from Asia and Australia due.   

Read for 30 minutes.  
December 9th, 2016

Peek at the Week ~ Week of December 12th

Room 207

Peek at the Week

Week of December 12th-16th

Writing: Write informative/ explanatory  texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.

After composing the three body paragraphs of their informational text last week, the fourth grade writers will generate their introductions and conclusions this week.  They will also be introduced to the rubric that will be used to grade their final draft.  For the final draft, they will create a published book made from plastic bags.  In addition to writing the informational text, they will also be responsible for using informational text features such as subtitles, bold words, captions, and pictures.  Some fourth grade writers may be inspired to include a table of contents, glossary, and index as well.  

Math: Use Place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-dig arithmetic.

In the fourth math unit, the students will be multiplying multiple digit numbers.  They will begin the week with identifying a rule to multiply by multiples of ten.  Throughout the week, they will also use estimation to solve word problems, convert liters to milliliters, and use a partitioned rectangle to multiply multiple digit numbers.  Throughout the unit of multiplying multiple digits, the students will not be explicitly taught multiplication the traditional way.  They begin with the partitioning of the rectangle to aid in the understanding of place value.  Later, they will focus on using place value to multiply.  

Reading: Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text, including what happened and why.

This week, the students will work on their mid-quarter project.  For this project, they will pick one of the biographies that they have read over the past six weeks.  From there, they will create a timeline identifying five important events in the person’s life.  They need to display the timeline in a creative way with an image that describes the person.  Finally, they need to write a summary that describes what they learned about the person in the biography.  All of the necessary requirements were stated on a rubric that the students received.  To create the project, they will all receive a large piece of construction paper.  If students want to use additional materials, they are welcome to bring in supplies from home.  

Homework Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday
Reading Read for 30 minutes.

 

Read for 30 minutes.

Letters from

North America and

South America due

Read for 30 minutes.

Letters from

Europe and Africa due

Read for thirty minutes.

Letters from

Asia and Australia due

Read for thirty minutes.  
Math Homelink 4.1 Homelink 4.2 Homelink 4.3 Homelink 4.4 Math Homework Due
December 2nd, 2016

Peek at the Week ~ Week of December 5th

Room 207

Peek at the Week

Week of December 5th-9th

Math: Understand decimal notation for fractions, and compare decimal fractions.  

On Wednesday and Thursday the students will take the Chapter 3 Tests.  On Wednesday’s Test, they will solve fraction word problems, shade a fraction of a whole, identify equivalent fractions, identify fractions on a number line, convert fractions to decimals, compare decimals, convert centimeters to millimeters, and use different strategies to compare fractions.  Thursday’s Test will be the open response portion of the Unit 3 Assessment.  On this day, they will be presented with a situation where they will have to determine the answer by comparing fractions.  To prepare for this, students should practice drawing out fractions in order to compare them.  

Writing: Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas information clearly.  

During the month of December, the students will be writing informative text.  They will begin the writing unit with creating an expert list to identify subjects that they know a lot about..  From there, they will pick an item on the list to free write.  They will then create an outline to organize their writing into three specific subcategories.  The remainder of the week will be spent writing the three body paragraphs.  Focus will be placed on using precise language and domain-specific vocabulary.  

Reading: Describe the overall structure of events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text or part of text.

The fourth graders will continue to read biographies.  As they are reading their specific biography, they will identify the most important event in the life of the person that they are reading about.  They will identify the cause of that particular event.  

Homework Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday
Math Homelink 3.13 Homelink

3.8

Math Homework Due
Reading Read for 30 minutes. Read for 30 minutes.  Letters from North America and South America due.   Read for 30 minutes.  Letters from Europe and Africa due.   Read for 30 minutes.  Letters from Asia and Australia due.   Read for 30 minutes.  
November 25th, 2016

Peek at the Week ~ Week of November 28th

Room 207

Peek at the Week

Week of November 29th-December 2nd

Reading: Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.

As the fourth graders continue to read biographies, they will be making inferences in the text. Guided reading groups will be centered around answering inferential questions.  While the students are working independently, they will be “lifting a line.” This reading activity involves the students taking a line from the text and writing five sentences about the  particular sentence.  In their five sentences, they should be including their own opinions, making an inference, and elaborating on how this sentence pertains to the life of the particular person.  The students have been told that they should “lift a line” from their independent book and elaborate on the particular line in their homework letter.  

Writing: Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.

This week, students will be wrapping up the publishing portion of the opinion piece unit. On Monday, the fourth graders will work together to complete a TAG sheet. On their TAG sheet, they will Tell a compliment, Ask three questions, and Give advice. On Tuesday and Wednesday, the fourth graders will use the opinion writing rubric to assess their own work as well as revise their work. The fourth graders will wrap up the opinion writing unit by reading other students’ opinion pieces and giving other students compliments on their work.

To read your student’s opinion piece, log on to https://storybird.com/parents/ and enter the password UDH86.

Math: Understand decimal notation for fractions, and compare decimal fractions. Solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements.

This week in math, students will evolve their understanding of converting fractions to decimals. At the beginning of the week, the fourth graders will be using base-10 blocks to compare decimals in the tenths place to those in the hundredths place. By the end of the week, the fourth graders will begin using decimals in the context of measurement. The fourth graders will be able to use their understanding of decimals to convert millimeters to centimeters.Ask your fourth grader to show you what he or she has learned about comparing decimals.

Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday
Reading Read for 30 minutes Letters from North America and South America due

Read for 30 minutes

Letters from Europe and Africa due

Read for 30 minutes

Letters from Asia and Australia due

Read for 30 minutes

Read for 30 minutes
Math Home-links 3-9 Home-links 3-10 Home-links 3-11 Home-links 3-12 Math homework due
November 18th, 2016

Peek at the Week ~ Week of November 21st

Room 207

Peek at the Week

Week of November 21st-22nd

Reading: Explain events, procedures, ideas or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the text.  

As the fourth graders continue to read biographies, they will be reading for specific events in the life of the person that they are reading about in the book.  They will identify a cause or effect of the event.  When reading with your fourth grader at home, ask your fourth grader to identify the cause or effect of the event.  Because of the short week, there will be no reading homework this week.  Please make sure that your fourth grader reads for thirty minutes every day during the long weekend.  

Writing: Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information

At this point in the opinion writing unit, students should have completed a revised opinion piece. Your fourth grader’s opinion piece should have an introduction, three paragraphs with reasons to support their opinion, and a persuasive conclusion. On Monday and Tuesday, students will begin to input their opinion pieces using the iPads on Story Bird. Each fourth grader will be expected to follow the opinion piece rubric when submitting his or her final opinion piece. Ask your fourth grader to share his or her completed opinion piece with you.

Math: Extend understanding of fraction equivalence and ordering, build fractions from unit fractions, understand decimal notation for fractions and compare decimals to fractions.

This week, students will learn strategies to order fractions and place them on a number line. On Monday, the fourth graders will understand how to compare fractions using a common numerator, a common denominator, or benchmark fractions. On Tuesday, the fourth graders will use their background knowledge on place value to convert fractions to decimals.

Homework Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday
Math Homelink 3.7 Homework Due
Reading Read for 30 minutes. Read for 30 minutes. Read for 30 minutes. Read for 30 minutes. Read for 30 minutes.
November 11th, 2016

Peek at the Week ~ Week of November 14th

Room 207

Peek at the Week

Week of November 14th-18th

Reading: Determine the main idea of a text and explain how it supported by key details; summarize the text.

The focus of reading in the second quarter will be on reading informational text.  More specifically, the fourth graders will be reading biographies.  Instead of working on a Bingo Sheet, they will need to write a letter to the subject of the biography.  In their letter, they will have to identify the main idea of the text, describe the person with a character trait with evidence from the text, state what they would do if they would meet the person, and ask a question that is pertinent to the person from the text that they read.  The students were read a sample letter of what is expected.  The readers will also meet in their guided reading books to discuss what they learned from reading the biography.  

Writing: Link opinion and reasons using words and phrases (e.g., for instance, in order to, in addition.). Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented.

This week in writing, the students are going to continue writing their opinion pieces. On Monday, the fourth graders will be provided with a list of transition words to use in their writing. They will use this transition word list to create smooth transitions moving from one paragraph to the next. On Tuesday, they will examine their word choice. The students will go through their writing and revise their word choice. On Wednesday and Thursday, the students will begin to construct their concluding statements. Ask your fourth grader to explain to you their opinion and their three supporting reasons.

Math:Extend understanding of fraction equivalence and ordering.  

This week, the students will begin to further extend their understanding of equivalent fractions. On Monday, the will learn why n*a/n*b is the same as a/b. On Tuesday, the fourth graders will complete and open response fraction comparison word problem. Starting Wednesday, the fourth graders will look at student samples and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the sample’s explanations and models. They will then revise their own work and mathematical models. Finally, the students will begin to compare fractions with different numerators and denominators. By the end of the week, students should be students should be able to explain and model fraction comparisons.

Homework Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday
Reading Read for 30 minutes. Read for 30 minutes. Read for 30 minutes. Read for 30 minutes. Read for 30 minutes.  
Math Homelink 3.4 Homelink 3.5 Homelink 3.6 Math Homework Due
November 4th, 2016

Peek at the Week ~ Week of November 7th

Miss Wejman’s

Peek at the Week

Week of November 7th-10th

 

Reading: Determine the meaning of general academic and domain specific words or phrases in a text.

Because of the short week, we will not meet in guided reading groups or have a Bingo Sheet due.  Instead, the students will work in their continent groups to define unfamiliar words.  On Monday, they will all receive a previously read text.  From there, they will circle unfamiliar words and use context clues to define the word with their continent.  They will then check their definition, write their word in a sentence, illustrate an image of the word, and present their word to the class.  At home, please encourage your fourth grader to use context clues when they encounter an unfamiliar word.  Since Monday marks the first day of the quarter, the students received new continent seating assignments.  Ask your fourth grader to tell you which continent they will be sitting in for the second quarter.  New seating arrangements mean that their reading homework due date might change.  For this week, letters from North America, South America, and Europe will be due on Tuesday.  Letters from Africa, Asia, and Australia will be due on Thursday.

 

Writing: Provide reasons that are supported by facts and details.

This week, the students will begin to support their claims in their opinion pieces. On Monday, they will generate three strong reasons to support their opinion. On Tuesday, the students will be researching their issue on the class iPads. They will need to find an article that has factual evidence to support their reasons. Thursday, the students will continue to read their chosen articles and pick out the strongest pieces of evidence. Please ask your fourth grader what issue they have decided to write an opinion piece on.

 

Math: Extend understanding of fraction equivalence and ordering.

In math, students will begin to strengthen their understanding of fractions. Monday, the students will begin solving word problems that ask them to decide if different fractions are equivalent. On Tuesday, the students will use their fraction circles to better understand equivalent fractions. On Thursday, the students will begin to order fractions on number lines, and will use the number line to visualize the order of fractions. Please ask your fourth grader to define the vocabulary terms whole, unit, denominator, and numerator.

 

Homework Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday
Math Home Link 3.1 Home Link 3.2 Home Link 3.3 Math Homework Due  
     Reading Read for 30 minutes. Read for 30 minutes.

Letters from North America, South America, and Europe due.

Read for 30 minutes.

 

 

Read for 30 minutes.

Letters from Africa, Asia, and Australia due.

Read for 30 minutes.

 

October 28th, 2016

Peek at the Week ~ Week of October 31st

Room 207

Peek at the Week

Week of October 31st-November 3rd

 

Reading: Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text.

Because Thursday is the last day of the quarter, the fourth graders will be working on their final reading project of the quarter.  Just like the mid-quarter project, they will complete a book cover using the reading skills that have been practiced through the first nine weeks of the school year.  Instead of creating the book cover for Whipping Boy, they will pick one of the guided reading books that they have read.  Skills that will be assessed include character trait, inference, main idea, theme, and summarizing.

 

Math: Draw and identify lines and angles and classify shapes by properties of their lines and angles.

The fourth graders will spend the first two days of the week practicing geometry skills.  They will identify properties of quadrilaterals on Monday and lines of symmetry on Tuesday.  On Wednesday, the students will take the Chapter 4 Test.  Math skills assessed on Wednesday include creating arrays, factors, multiples, area, converting hours to minutes, multiplicative comparative problems, properties of triangles and quadrilaterals, identifying lines of symmetry, and multiplication.  On Thursday, the students will take a cumulative math test.  Concepts assessed include place value, adding and subtracting multiple digit numbers, perimeter, and solving word problems.

 

Writing: Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which related ideas are grouped to support the writer’s purpose.

With the new month, the students will be introduced to the new genre of opinion writing.  They will begin by generating a list of issues that they have a strong opinion about.  As the week continues, they will use prior knowledge to brainstorm what they know about this issue.  The students will be introduced to the different components of opinion writing.  The students will learn that a strong introduction begins with a “hook.” To help the writers begin with a strong hook, they will read opinion writing samples with effective hooks.  The writers will end the week with writing their opinion piece introductions.  Ask your fourth grader what issue they are interested in writing about as their opinion writing topic.

 

Report Card Pick Up

Report Card pick up is scheduled for Wednesday, November 9th.  Appointments will be scheduled from 12-6PM in ten minute increments.  Please complete and return the bottom portion of this note to identify your top three preferred conference times.  Conference times will be assigned on a first come, first serve basis.

 

Homework Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday
Reading Read for 30 minutes. Read for 30 minutes.

Letters from North America and South America due.

Read for 30 minutes.  Letters from Europe and Africa due. Read for 30 minutes.  Letters from Asia and Australia due. Read for 30 mintues.
Math Homelink 2.11 Homelink 2.12 Homelink 2.13 Math Homework Due

 

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Student Name: ________________________________________________________________________

Parent Name: ________________________________________________________________________

Preferred Conference Time: 1.__________ 2._________ 3._______

 

October 21st, 2016

Peek at the Week ~ Week of October 24th

Room 207

Peek at the Week

Week of October 24th-28th

 

Math: Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic.

The fourth graders will continue to practice multiplication by converting minutes to seconds and hours to minutes.  They will also solve word problems involving multiplication and addition comparative statements.  All fourth graders should know which operation to use when solving a word problem.  We will end the week with identifying properties of triangles.  The fourth graders should know the difference between an acute, right, and obtuse triangle.

 

Reading: Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text; summarize the text.

The students will review summarizing the text.  The fourth graders should know that when summarizing the text, they should include the who, what, where, whey, and when of the text that they are reading.  Please practice summarizing text with your fourth grader at home.

 

Writing: Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.

Because it is the last week of October, this week’s response to the prompt will be graded as a final draft.   Throughout the month, the fourth graders became acclimated to the PARCC narrative writing rubric and graded their writing with it.  For the final draft, the fourth grade narrative writing rubric will be used.  Topics graded include writing a strong introduction and conclusion, using transitional words, writing with description, using dialogue, and writing with the appropriate fourth grade conventions.

 

Dismissal

Because the fourth graders leave Ray at 3:45 in a variety of ways, it is important that their way home is documented.  Please complete and return the bottom portion of this letter.

 

Homework Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday
Reading Read for 30 minutes Read for 30 minutes

Letters from North America and South America

Read for 30

minutes

Letters from Europe and Africa due

 

Read for 30 minutes

Letters from Asia and Australia due

Read for 30 minutes
Math Homelink 2.7 Homelink 2.8 Homelink 2.9 Homelink 2.10 Math Homework Due

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

Fourth Grader:_____________________________________________

Please check how your child will be dismissed at 3:45.

_____ Pick up by adult  _____ Afterschool Activity at Ray

_____Walk Home Alone _____ Other

Comments: __________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________

Adult Signature: ____________________________________________

October 14th, 2016

Peek at the Week ~ Week of October 17th

Room 207

Peek at the Week

Week of October 17th-21st

 

Math: Gain familiarity with factors and multiples.

The students will begin the week with identifying multiples of numbers.  They will continue with learning the difference between a prime and composite number.  Ask your fourth grader to tell you the difference between the two.  On Wednesday, they will work on an Open Response problem.  They will learn that a conjecture is an educated guess that needs to be supported with an argument.  On Thursday, they will revise their work.  Because of the two day lesson, math homework will be due this week on Thursday.

 

Reading: Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text; summarize the text.

The students will be identifying the main idea of the text that they are reading.  When reading with your fourth grader at home, please ask your child to identify the main idea of the text at the conclusion of their reading.

 

Writing: Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.

As the students are responding to another prompt from the sample PARCC test, they will be encouraged to use the editor’s checklist to revise their writing.  They will also use other words besides “said” when writing dialogue.  This week’s prompt requires the student to write a continuation of the story that was read.  They will also use the PARCC rubric to grade student writing samples as well as their own.

 

  Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday
Math Homelink 2.4 Homelink 2.5 Homelink 2.6 Math homework due  
Reading Read for thirty minutes. Read for thirty minutes.

Letters from North America and South America due

Read for thirty minutes.

Letters from Europe and Africa due

Read for thirty minutes.

Letters from Asia and Australia due

Read for thirty minutes.